Flange Cardan Shaft: High-Performance Universal Shaft-Jiangsu Sitong Cardan Shaft Co.,Ltd DOCANDO INTERNATIONAL INDUSTRY CO.,LIMITED
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Flange Cardan Shaft: High-Performance Universal Shaft

Views:452     Author:Cardan Shaft Manufacturer     Publish Time: 2010-06-10      Origin:Sitong Cardan Shaft Co.,Ltd

The flange cardan shaft is considered to be one of the oldest of all cardan shafts. It is commonly known for its use on automobiles and trucks. A universal shaft in its simplest form consists of two shaft yokes at right angles to each other and a four-point cross that connects the yokes. The cross rides inside the bearing cap assemblies, which are pressed into the yoke eyes. Industrial applications operate continuously and with high torque loads. This demands maximum strength and long life of the universal joint components. The modern cardan shaft has become much more complex than its simple ancestor.


The flange cardan shaft is made for demanding industrial applications. Universal shaft have several unique features that make it ideal for a variety of applications. Most significant is the ability of the cardan shaft to operate at high misalignment angles. Operating angles up to 15 degrees are not uncommon. Another feature of the cardan shaft is the bearing and seal design that resists lubrication loss and contamination. This makes flange cardan shafts suitable for applications where severe atmospheric conditions would put other universal shafts at a distinct disadvantage.

Characteristics of Flange Cardan Shaft

1.)Unlimited Service Life

When properly installed and if initial conditions remain unchanged, flange cardan shaft have an unlimited service life.


2.)Light Weight with High Torque

flange cardan shaft are available in a wide range of specifications to meet various operating conditions. Requirements for lighter weight can be met by using a type whose main body is made of a light material such as alloyed aluminum.


3.)Lower Thrust Load and

General cardan shafts prevent problems by absorbing shaft misalignment while transmitting torque; this puts an opposing load on the shaft. With flange cardan shaft, however, this load is much lower than with other types of cardan shafts.


4.)Higher Torsional Stiffness and No Backlash

For equipment such as machine tools with numerical controllers, indexing systems, and printing machines requiring accurate shaft rotation and phase control, flange cardan shafts are best suited because of their high torsional stiffness.


5.)Superior Resistance to Environmental Conditions

Since no lubricating oil is required, flange cardan shaft made of standard materials operate satisfactorily, even at high ambient temperatures. Further, the use of special materials and/or coatings makes operation under any environmental condition possible.


6.)Rugged Construction and Small Load Stress

Load stress on flange cardan shaft is maintained at very low levels, except in special cases. Therefore, the service life of these couplings is practically unlimited when operated within the acceptable range of allowable misalignment.


7.)Easy Mounting and Dismounting

flange cardan shafts can be mounted and unmounted quickly and easily due to their compactness and small number of parts. Excellent reassembly characteristics provide superior speed. The use of spacers with the coupling permits easy mounting and dismounting without the necessity of moving heavy machinery. This is helpful in the replacement of seals and bearings in pumps and other equipment.


8.)Fail-Safe Mechanism

Should the element be damaged due to overload or accident, a fail-safe mechanism transmitting rotation via washers becomes operational.


9.)Great Range of Misalignment Allowable

These flange cardan shafts are applicable for a wide variety of systems because of their great range of allowable misalignment. Special designs for even larger allowances are possible.

Types of Flange Cardan Shaft

Types of Flange Cardan Shaft

Single Flange Cardan Shaft

Precision single flange cardan shaft suit angles up to 45° and speeds to 4000 r/min.

Shaft sizes 6 to 50 mm, dimensions to DIN 808. Two versions are available, Type G, the low speed model with sliding plain bushes or Type H a high speed model with needle roller bearings.


Suitable for up to 4000 r/min and up to 45°

Type G for low speed, Type H for high speed

Precision ground surfaces

Gaiters are recommended for Type G

Available with round bores to H7 for pinning or with Js9 keyways to


Square and hexagonal bores on request

Double flange cardan shaft

Precision double flange cardan shaft suit angles up to 90° and give constant velocity output. Shaft sizes 6 to 50 mm, dimensions to DIN 808. Types GD suit up to 1000 r/min, while Type HD offers higher speeds due to its needle roller bearing construction.


Suitable for up to 4000 r/min and up to 90°

Type GD for low speed, Type HD for high speed

Precision ground surfaces

Gaiters are recommended for Type GD

Available with round bores to H7 for pinning or with Js9 keyways to BS4235

Square and hexagonal bores on request

Telescopic Flange Cardan Shaft 

Telescopic flange cardan shaft with plain bearings either to standard lengths or customised to your requirements. All telescopic flange cardan shafts have splines made from extruded steel grade C45 to UNI222. Precision machined female bushes are made from the same material. Angles up to 45° per joint and speeds to 1000 r/min, Type HA offers higher speeds. Shaft sizes 10 to 50mm, dimensionsto DIN 808.


Available customised to any length up to 3m or as standard lengths from stock

Suitable for all types of machinery where the distance between shafts is variable

Type GA with sliding plain bearing for speeds up to 1000r/min

Type HA with needle roller bearings for high speeds, maintenance free

Up to 90° total drive angle

Two versions available from stock to suit varying speeds and duties


How to Select Your Flange Cardan Shaft

How to Select Your Flange Cardan Shaft

The optimum choice of flange cardan shaft for any application is the result of a compromise between many factors. Care should be taken to select a cardan shaft that meets the performance criteria at the minimum cost.

1. Decide if the cardan shaft should be torsionally soft or rigid. Torsionally soft types are generally less expensive.

2. Consider whether a small amount of backlash is tolerable; a backlash-free cardan shaft is usually more expensive.

3. Calculate the required torque by multiplying the running power and speed by the service factors shown in the table below.

4. Make a provisional selection.

5. Check the maximum speed and coupling dimensions meet requirements.


With backlash or backlash-free?


Flange cardan shafts that have a one-piece construction or have bolted joints are backlash-free. These are useful for precise positioning and to avoid wear on reversing drives. Cardan shafts with backlash tend to have lower costs and are easier to install.


Torsionally soft or torsionally rigid?


As a cardan shaft manufacturer, we can tell you couplings with rubber or plastic elements can be considered as torsionally soft. Most metal flange cardan shafts are rigid, but some such as Simplaflex have quite low stiffness. A soft flange cardan shaft may wind up 5° or more at rated torque whilst a rigid one would twist as little as 0.1°. Soft flange cardan shafts are generally lower in cost.

About the Misalignment of The Flange Cardan Shaft

The flange cardan shafts can be used as a single joint or it can be used in pairs. When used as a single joint, only angular misalignment is accommodated. Since nearly every installation requires the coupling to also accommodate offset misalignment, universal shafts should be used in pairs. Using universal shafts in pairs also corrects for non-uniform angular velocity caused by the rotational characteristics of a single joint.


Types of misalignment:



This is usually present to some extent on all applications, typical values 0.5°– 2°. Sometimes higher values are necessary.

About the Misalignment of The Flange Cardan Shaft


Also known as parallel misalignment, this is also nearly always present. A well aligned installation might have values below 0.20mm.

About the Misalignment of The Flange Cardan Shaft


This can be considered as end float. It is sometimes caused by thermal expansion or is a result of machine design.

About the Misalignment of The Flange Cardan Shaft

Often a combination of all three types of misalignment is present. Coupling maximum limits should not be used simultaneously.

Speed Limit of Flange Cardan Shaft

Speed Limit Based on Limits of Mass Acceleration When flange cardan shafts are operated at any angle greater than zero, the center section of the universal shafts always runs irregularly, being accelerated and decelerated twice in every revolution. The maximum values of mass acceleration torque arising here are dependent on the operating speed and angle of deviation ß and upon the moment of inertia of the center shaft section. To ensure the smooth running of the cardan shafts, the mass acceleration torque must not be allowed to exceed the limits.


Speed Limit Based on Lateral Critical Speed In applications where long lengths of shafts are required, the speed is restricted by the lateral critical speed of the center section. This speed is a function of the center tube diameter wall thickness, and the effective length. The maximum operating speed must be less than the lateral critical speed.



In many applications, operation at 1/2 critical speed will also create unacceptable vibration. For these applications, the operating speed should be 8% above or below 50% of the maximum indicated. 

Instructions for Correct Assembly of Flange Cardan Shaft

Instructions for Correct Assembly of Flange Cardan Shaft

In order to obtain a uniform rotational movement, always use two opposing single or double joints. The shaft bracket should be placed as close as possible to the joint. In order to obtain a uniform rotational movement, always use two opposing single joints or one double joint. The pillow should be placed as close as possible to the joint


Use two opposing single joints, paying attention to the alignment of the internal fork. In retractable shafts, you should also pay attention to whether the arrow marks match. When using two opposing single connectors, please pay attention to the alignment of the inner yoke.


The articulation angle must be equal. shafts can only move parallel or symmetrically between them. Do not drill pinholes on the front fork to avoid damaging the front fork. The joint angle must be equal. 

About the Lubrication of Flange Cardan Shaft

About the Lubrication of Flange Cardan Shaft

Among the most common causes of a flange cardan shaft and slip failure is the lack of proper lubrication. The properly sized universal joint that is adequately lubricated at recommended intervals will normally meet or exceed operational requirements.


U-Joint Lubrication

Proper cross and bearing lubrication require purging the U-joint. The seals are designed to relieve contaminants and old lubricants when fresh grease is installed. This occurs when excess lubricant appears at the bearing caps seals. All bearing caps must be purged to ensure full lubrication. To remedy a non-purged bearing cap, side to side movement of the shaft in all directions may loosen the seal. If the seal will not purge, the cap should be partially removed, then purged.


Slip Spline Lubrication

Proper slip spline lubrication will occur when the flange cardan shaft is in its operating length. Lubricant should be installed at the center grease fitting until excess grease "purges" from beneath the sealed tube.


Lubrication Specifications


Extreme pressure (EP) greases of high quality are recommended for universal joints and slip splines. Lithium soap base greases meeting National Lubricating Greases Institute Grade 1 (NGL1) and Grade 2 are preferred. Avoid using greases that tend to separate and cake. For applications with shaft speeds less than 500 rpm, a mineral oil SAE 140 to SAE 250 viscosity may be used.


Lubrication Intervals

U-joint lubrication must occur after the first 200 hours of service and three months thereafter. Severe applications require shorter intervals of lubrication service. The slip spline should be lubricated each time the U-joint is serviced.

Customize Your Flange Cardan Shaft

Size selection depends on torque, speed and running angle. If you need please contact us, Our experts choose the universal shaft that precisely matches your application. We consider not only the load data of the cardan shaft, but also the resonance ranges that are critical for flexure and torsion. As a result, your universal shaft is operationally reliable and has a long lifetime. Our cardan shaft ensure productivity and reduce maintenance costs for your machine or system. If necessary, the design layout of our universal shafts can be adapted to your drive and operating conditions.

We have first-class production line and strict management system.

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